Van Prooijen, J.-W., Van den Bos, K., & Wilke, H. A. M. (2007). Procedural justice in authority relations: The strength of outcome dependence influences people's reactions to voice. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1286-1297.


In this article, we study how the strength of outcome dependence, defined as the extent to which people’s outcomes depend on authority’s decisions, influences their reactions to voice or no-voice procedures. We suggest that in situations where people are strongly outcome dependent they assume that the authority may not consider their views, and therefore voice procedures exert less influence on people’s procedure judgments than in situations where they are not strongly outcome dependent. Findings of two experiments corroborate this line of reasoning: In strongly outcome dependent situations, recipients’ procedure judgments are influenced less strongly by voice versus no-voice procedures than in moderate or weak outcome dependent situations. Furthermore, these effects werefound for both pre-decision voice (Experiment 1) and for post-decision voice (Experiment 2). It is concluded that strong outcome dependence decreases the value-expressive function of voice opportunities.